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合同四大特征的翻譯處理

 2020-07-01 10:10:19
點擊:28

1. 格式固定


格式問題,一般原則是客從主人。應用文體的許多格式,都是沿用已久的,具有相對固定的含義,同業見之,照此辦理,節省時間,沒有必要標新立異。如英文外貿信函中的結尾套語,在大多數場合,使用“yours faithfully”或“yours sincerely”就足夠了。合同的開頭往往都十分相似的,比如:


This contract is made and entered into this _ day of_,one thousand nine hundred_by and between _ Co.,at (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and_Co.,at_ (hereinafter referred to as Party B).


本合同于19_年_月_日由_公司,地址:_(以下簡稱甲方)與_公司,地址:_(以下簡稱乙方)簽訂。


2. 語體莊重


應用文體,雖有平易化的趨勢,但除少數體式外(如廣告),總的說來,措辭簡明、莊重,屬于正式書面語體,翻譯時應避免使用口語。酌情使用文言虛詞及其他書面詞語,往往可以起到言簡意賅的效果,也可以改善長句的分、接問題。


請看下面一些譯例:


1) We should appreciate a prompt reply.


如蒙即復,不勝感激。


2) On condition that you order more than 2,000 sets,we are prepared to offer a special price of US$ 9.10 per set, namely with 5% discount.


如訂購2,000套以上,我方準備特價報盤,每套9.10美元,即給予5%的折扣。


3) This is to certify that the English translated copy attached hereto is in conformity with the Chinese original copy.


茲證明所附的英文譯本與中文正本內容相符。


4) In reply to your inquiry of 25th March, we are pleased to offer you the following: 


現函復貴方3月25日詢價,并報盤如下:


5) This Contract shall come into force from the date of execution hereof by the Buyer and the Builder.


本合同自買方和建造方簽約之日生效。


6) According to the terms agreed upon, we have drawn on you at sight against shipment through Bank of China here. We would ask you to protect the draft upon presentation.


根據雙方協議條款,我們已向貴方開具這批船貨的即期匯票,通過此處中國銀行轉去,請見票即付。

在英文的法律文件和商貿信函中,有一套慣用的詞語。這些詞語,酌情使用時能給人一種正式文書的持重感。


合同用語                 通常用語


hereby (adv. )         by this means


herein ( adv. )         in this


hereof (adv. )         of, or concerning this


hereto ( adv. )         to this


herewith (adv. ) with this


whereby (adv. ) by which


7) The undersigned hereby certifies that the goods to be supplied are produced in Japan.


下述簽署人特此保證,所供貨物在日本制造。


8) Please find herein a list of chemicals available at present.


附寄目前可供應的化工產品貨單一紙,請查收。


9) This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller,whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the under-mentioned commodity according to the terms and conditions stipulated below.


買賣雙方同意按下列條款購買、出售下述商品,并簽訂本合同。


10) In accordance with the stipulations of“The Law of the People's Republic of China on Joint Ventures Using Chinese and Foreign Investment”and other related laws and rules, and on the basis of equality and mutual benefit,_of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and_of_,both agree to establish a Joint Venture Enterprise with joint investment and hereby sign this contract.


中國__公司與__國__公司遵照《中華人民共和國中外合資經營法》及有關法律的規定,本著平等互利的原則,同意共同投資興辦合資經營企業,茲簽訂本合同。


應用文體,漢語和英語,其習語都各成系統。從上面的譯例看,似乎漢語中的“茲”相當于英語中的“hereby”。事實上,在英漢互譯中,這兩個詞并非能處處對號人座,其他的詞更是如此。這些習語的使用,與其說是“句意”的要求,不如說是“文體”的要求。因此,根據各自語言表達的需要,有時可適當增譯,如例3)增譯了“茲”,例4)增譯了“現”; 有時又宜省譯,如例9)省譯了“whereby”。


3. 措辭婉約


俗話說和氣生財。”這是生意人的金科玉律。因此,英語外貿信函等應用文體,措辭十分講究分寸、得體,避免刺激對方,即使是向對方抱怨,甚至索賠,也是彬彬有禮,十分婉轉。


請看下面的例子,注意劃線部分:


10) We wish to advise you that the relative L/C has been established.


茲通知,有關信用證業已開出。


11) I'm afraid we can't accept your counterbid.


很抱歉,我們無法接受你方還盤。


12) I'm afraid we can't come to terms if you won't give us 3% discount.


如果不給3%的折扣,我們恐怕很難成交。


13) We are looking forward to the pleasure of hearing from you again soon.


盼早日收到你方回復。


14) Your immediate attention would be appreciated.


請即辦理為荷。


15) You must deliver the goods on board S. S. “East Wind”within the time limit as stipulated in our contract, otherwise dead freight, if any, should be bome by you. 


你方必須按合同規定的期限將貨裝上“東風輪”,否則,空艙費將由你方負責。


16) We are pleased to inform you that goods have been dispatched today.


貨物今日業巳啟運,特此奉告。


17) We are interested in discussing arts and crafts business with you.


我們有意與你們洽談工藝品業務。


18) We are glad to learn from your letter of 21 October that you have decided to place a large order for a number of items included in our quotation of 11 October.


從10月21日來函欣悉,貴公司決定按我公司10月11日報價單大量訂購我公司 多種產品。


19) We might say that our products are the very best on the market.


順便奉告,我方產品在市場上獨占整頭。


20) We presume that there must be some reason for your having trouble with this article.


此產品給你們帶來麻煩,諒必事出有因。


類似例子,舉不勝舉,希望引起注意。上面的譯文,雖非“標準”答案,但仔細對照,我們可以悟出一些翻譯原理。比如例1,如果逐詞譯出:“我們愿告訴你有關信用證已開出”,就會不倫不類,讓人啼笑皆非。因此,在英漢互譯時,遇上類似的語句,必須注意增減變通,以期與譯語語體相吻合。


4. 行文嚴謹 


應用文體屬記實性文體,行文準確、嚴謹是其一大特色。試看下面一段文章:


付款條件:


離岸價條款:


a. 按合同規定賣方應在裝運之前30天用電報或函件通知買方合同號碼、品名、數量、價值、箱號、毛重、尺寸及可在發運港口交貨,以便買方訂艙。


b. 賣方對運貨船抵達后由于未能按期將貨物運交裝運港口而造成的誤船或滯留裝運應承擔責任。


c. 在貨物裝運之前,賣方應承擔貨物的全部費用與風險,而在貨物裝運之后,貨物的全部費用則由買方承擔。


譯文:


Terms of payment :


In case of FOB Terms


a. The Seller shall, 30 days before the date of shipment stipulated in the contract, advise the Buyer by cable / letter of the Contract NO. , commodity, quantity, value, number of package, gross weight, measurement and the date of readiness at the port of shipment for the Buyer to book shipping space.


b. The Seller shall be liable for any dead freight or demurrage (逾期費),should it happen that he has failed to have the commodity ready for loading after the carrying vessel has arrived at the port of shipment on time.


c. The Seller shall bear all expenses, risks of the commodity before it passes over the vessel's rail and is released from the tackle. After it has passed over the vessel's rail and has been released from the tackle, all expenses of the commodity shall be for the Buyer's account.


以上是一份“售購合同”付款條件的一部分,給人的感覺是:行文刻板、拘謹、單調,但條理清楚、措辭準確、滴水不漏。應用文體,大至國家法規,國際經濟組織章程和文件,小至某項業務的合同、各類涉外公證書、信用證、提單等,都是具有法律效力的文件與單證。擬稿或翻譯時稍有差錯,往往導致貿易糾紛,造成經濟損失,甚至帶來不良的政治影響。 

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